Cause & Symptoms

Cause and Symptoms:
How is CMD created?

A disturbance in body statics.

The TMD (Temporomandibular Disorder) describes a dysfunction of the masticatory system, which manifests as multiple symptoms and complex clinical pictures. Usually, the mandibular joints and the musculature are able to adapt to changes in the masticatory system up to a certain degree. But if this is exceeded, the typical complaints relating to TMD can occur. Pain in the area of the jaw joints, joint noises as well as tooth pain and headaches are common symptoms of TMD. However, there can also occur complaints which seem to be unrelated to Mandibular Joint Disorders at first glance. Symptoms such as tinnitus, vertigo as well as pain in seemingly unrelated parts of the body, such as the neck, shoulders and back can occur.

Masticatory system

Mandibular pain

Noises in the joint

Muscular pain





Other parts of the body

Neck pain

Shoulder pain


Leg length discrepancy

Discoordination of the orthopaedic entities

Psychosocial factors




Depressed mental state


Headache and TMD

A functional defective position of the mandibular joint can be responsible for recurring headaches. The intensity and localisation of the pain are not specific and may manifest themselves rather diversely. Sometimes the pain resulting from the TMD can be so severe that it may be confused with migraine.

Persistent incorrect weightbearing of the mandibular joint leads to tension of the adjacent musculature as well as to intense stress of the surrounding tissue. In consequence, headache or facial pain can occur as a symptom of TMD.

The successful treatment of a joint dysfunction can alleviate the condition significantly.

Tinnitus and TMD

The term tinnitus is generally used to describe a disruption of hearing where noises are perceived without external sound. Phantom noises, such as whistling, hissing or buzzing, can occur unilaterally or in both ears. Tinnitus as a clinical picture has multiple causes. A dysfunction of the masticatory system (TMD) might underlie tinnitus. Ear and temporomandibular joint are located in close proximity to each other. The region in enervated by the fifth cerebral nerve (nervus trigeminus). Multiple cerebral transverse nerves connect the centres of the acoustic system with the proper region of the brain. If the interaction between the upper and the lower jaw is defective, the resulting strain may have a negative impact on the temporomandibular joint and in consequence also on the auditory system.

The pathology of tinnitus can be distinctly ameliorated by a successful treatment of the TMD.